Nursing- Lower Lobe Lung Carcinoma

A dreadful disease like Lung Carcinoma doesn’t show active signs in a short span but develops its intensity over time. The lining of bronchi starts to react once there is over consumption of carcinogenic components and slowly an abnormal growth starts to take place. The main cause of Lung Carcinoma is smoking cigarettes.

Factsheet for Smoking and Cancer:

Smoking is considered as a primary cause of Lung cancer. Approximately, 80%- 90% of the population is affected with lung cancer because of the smoking. Below are some relative lung carcinoma cases affected because of smoking:

1). Lung cancer is caused by smoking and it is the second leading cause of death.

2). Tobacco and cigarettes have cancer causing agents that effect the reproduction, growth and mutation of the genes.

3).The intensity becomes even more dreadful when taken along with alcohol consumption. Simultaneously, taking smoking and alcohol will cause laryngeal cancer. This cancer has caused 4000 deaths in United States.

4).The risk of death caused by cancer is directly proportional to number of cigarettes consumed per day. Risk decreases when the rate of consumption decreases.

5). Emphysema, Heart disease, Chronic bronchitis and Stroke are also reduced after quitting smoke.

6). Benzene, the harmful component of cigarette is also harmful and can cause death by being too much exposed to it.

7). Cigarettes can also cause other cancers such as pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer, acute myeloid leukaemia and kidney cancer.

Lower Lobe Lung Carcinoma:

Lung cancer can primarily caused by smoking or spread from other external sources.

Some of the symptoms of this disease are:

a). Pathophysiology: This Lung cancer infiltrates the lung parenchyma as this carcinoma keeps high potential for metastasis.

b). Common visible symptoms: Some common symptoms are cough for long duration accompanied by sputum with blood called Haemoptysis, breathlessness, pain in the chest, difficulty in breathing and many more. There will also be pain in bones, anaemia and general malaise.

Nursing assessment and its importance:

Nursing comes into use in the first stage of the cancer where the patient needs immediate intervention by physical, physiological and emotional needs.

Components of Nursing Assessment:

  • Nursing History
  • Physical Examination
  • Physiological Examination
  • Social examination

Nursing is the first step taken to develop a patient’s confidence in treatment by building a rapport before starting any examination. It is also helpful in knowing the details of the patient’s background.

This process also includes physical examination which is done by observation and severity of signs and symptoms. Some of the methods used in the examination are Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion, Measurement of vitals like temperature & blood pressure, pulse and colour of the skin.

The social and physiological examination involves the patient’s emotional and intellectual behaviour too in order to assess the patient’s orientation towards treatment. Nursing treatment is recorded in a form of document for future reference called as Nursing Records.

Some of the Nursing Priorities:

  • Improve the respiratory function
  • Control or Alleviate Pain
  • Reassure the family regarding the improvement
  • Extend full support to manage the situation
  • Monitor the records and patients’ response towards the treatment
  • Thorough record keeping

How Nursing Diagnosis take place:

After the patient is shifted from Intensive Care Unit, the nursing provides the vigilant care the patient needs. The nursing staffs have to be ready to face complicated situations post Lobotomy, which requires their alert action, quick decision and smart referrals. Nursing diagnosis is on the basis of the patient’s condition on spot and not based on their medical report.

Some briefing on the diagnosis:

  • Abnormal breathing patterns
  • Acute pain
  • Ineffective coughing
  • Impaired gas exchange because of meditational shift, which requires quick intervention
  • Risk of deficient fluid volume because of chest tube drainage.

Where Nursing Intervention is needed:

Nursing intervention is needed post surgery to keep patient under careful consideration and protection. Some of the measures taken are:

1). Restore normal breathing pattern visible through patient’s skin colour.

2). Put the patient on his/her back to expand the lungs to the fullest.

3).To keep the airway open with humidified oxygen to help with the patients secretion loosened by their suction.

4).The antibiotic or drug taken by the patient is to be noted by the nurse to suggest immediate alternative if required.

Special Considerations:

  • A high support of nursing staff is needed after or during physiotherapy of chest. Breathing exercises are provided to the patient.
  • Since chest surgery can be dreadful, proper assistance should be given to the patient.
  • The patient must be nursed in the semi-upright position post lower lobotomy surgery.
  • Oxygen therapy, mental and emotional being needs to be taken care of.


  • Pain is strictly under control
  • Anxiety and fear is under control
  • Case is stable and free from suspected complications.
  • When ventilation is adequate to meet the patients’ needs.

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